Use formal, written grammar throughout your entire thesis. This is the type of grammar that is generally taught in school and that is tested in standardized tests. If you find an error in quoted text or used tables/figures, do not make any corrections. You must use copyrighted material “as is” with no changes.(see 6.28)
Avoid multiple columns for text
Print on only one side of the paper: do not print on both side
Use standard verb forms and minimize use of idiomatic expressions
deal with a problem
formal word choice
with tolerate; persevere
problem address (confront) a problem
Abbreviations of Latin phrases in common usage such as cf., et al., e.g., i.e., in vivo, in vitro, etc. need not be italicized or underlined.
No abbreviations should appear in chapter headings or subheads
Sentences should not begin with abbreviations, symbols, or numbers. Ampersands (&) may not be used in the body of the text.
Students are responsible for acknowledging any business models, facts, ideas, or materials of others used in their own thesis. (see 6.28)
There are many ways to handle scholarly references, and preferred usage varies by field. In choosing an annotation or reference system, students should be guided by the practice of their discipline and the recommendations of their thesis advisor, department, or committee. In some fields, publishers of scholarly books or articles have established styles for various editorial details and may have issued a style manual to guide contributors. Students who plan eventual publication may find these guides helpful in setting a style for their advisors that will be appropriate for publication without extensive alteration (Style Manuals, 6.32).
If you include copyrighted material in your thesis that goes beyond the limits of “fair use”, you are responsible for obtaining written permission from the copyright holder. The Students Affairs Section has a standard form. The Graduate Program in Sustainability Science, the Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, and The University of Tokyo take no responsibility for any damages that may arise from copyright violations by a degree candidate.
The general guideline for scholarly reference and throughout your entire thesis, whatever the convention used, is consistency (see 6.7). Essential publication facts should be as complete as possible, but unnecessary details should be avoided. Follow the practices of your discipline; and most of all, be sure to follow the style recommended by your advisor.
body of text
numbers in columns
|do not justify both margins: every line becomes the same length and awkward spacing problems often occur.|
Many words that differ greatly between American English and British English are seldom used in science. Here, for your edification, are some examples that are remarkably different:
(North) American System
one billion = 1012
one billion = 109
one trillion = 1018
one billion = 1012
in the future
Many journals accept article submissions with either North American English or British English spelling provided the spelling conventions are applied consistently throughout the document.
follow the rules capitalization in the style manual that you use regarding proper nouns, heading and subheads, symbols, measurements, and the like.
Capitalize major words in a sentence or phrase*
*The first letter of words in proper nouns always uses a capital letter.
Building a Zero-Emission and
Resource-Cyclical Community in the
Preah Vihear Area of the Kingdom of Cambodia
Table 20 Eco-tourism Advantages to Sustainability of Local Villages ……. 12
Figure 7 Burned and Unburned Areas in Deciduous Forest ……………….. 32
Capitalize the 1st word only in a sentence or phrase
*The first letter of words in proper nouns always uses a capital letter.
Building a zero-emission and resource-cyclical community in the Preah Vihear area of the Kingdom of Cambodia
This is commonly known as ALL CAPS.
BUILDING A ZERO-EMISSION AND RESOURCE-CYCLICAL COMMUNITY IN THE PREAH VIHEAR AREA OF THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA
Use small letters only.*
*The first letter of words in proper nouns always uses a capital letter.
building a zero-emission and resource-cyclical community in the Preah Vihear area of the Kingdom of Cambodia
When listing items using bullets or numbers, use lowercase:
Back matter includes
Required front matter includes
Consistent font use is a must for a professional appearance. This includes page titles, heading, subheads, page numbers, etc.
(Usually when copying and pasting a figure, table, or whatever from a website—regardless of proper citation from another source—the readability is more often than not, degraded … which is unacceptable.)
(All words, figures, tables, and the like must be “inside” the page margins)
All corrections should be done by re-editing the original text, and printing out a new copy. Do not use any correction fluid to correct errors. Erasures, the use of correction fluid, interlinear corrections, those made by hand, or by strikeover, are not acceptable.
All figures must be readable and labeled, and copied items must be properly cited. Color is not recommended for distinguishing features; cross-hatching is preferred unless your advisor approves the use of color.
Figures may be placed on a page alone by themselves, or they may be placed directly into the text. If a figure is alone on a page (with no narrative text), it must be centered within the horizontal and vertical margins. Figures located in text may not be placed at the end of the chapter or at the end of the thesis.
When inserting figures into the text, they must be inserted as soon as possible after they are first mentioned. If the figure is too large to follow immediately the part of the text to which it relates, the figure should be placed at the beginning of the following page. A figure should be separated from the text both above and below it by approximately three single spaces, or placed on a separate page, depending on the size of the figure.
Figures larger than one-half page should be placed on a separate sheet. A figure that is too wide for the page may be placed lengthwise on the page (landscape layout). Figures that can fit either vertically or horizontally on a page must not be reduced. Oversized figures should be reduced through photocopying but be sure the copy is on the same paper as the rest of the thesis. Page numbers are not to be reduced in size: they must be in original font and size.
All figures must be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis using Arabic numbers, i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Figures should be identified by number only. Do not use designations such as Figure 1A, Figure 1B. Figures may be set up with A and B parts. Figure numbering must be continuous throughout the thesis. For example, there may not be two figures designated in a thesis as “Figure 3″.
The title of a figure should consist of a single phrase (not a sentence) with sentence capitalization (see 6.6) and no closing period at the end placed below the figure (see style manuals recommended by your advisor or ones appropriate to your field; see 6.32). The word “figure” should be written in full (not abbreviated), and the “F” should be capitalized (e.g., Figure 5). Avoid numbering such as Figure 5a, Figure 5b, and Figure 5c whenever possible. Figures and their titles need not be bold typeface. Be sure to use a consistent format throughout your thesis.
Horizontal figures (i.e., those landscaped on the page) must be centered on the page. Figure captions should be placed below the figure inside the page margins. Page numbers are always placed as if the figure were vertical on the page. Figures that can fit either vertically or horizontally on a page must not be reduced. Only those figures that are too large to be placed horizontally may be reduced and continued on two or more pages, if necessary. Oversized figures should be reduced through photocopying, but be sure the copy is on the same paper as the rest of the thesis. Page numbers must be in original type and the original size: do not reduce.
All graphs, diagrams, line drawings, manuscript facsimiles, maps, chemical formulas, computer printouts, and so on included in the body of the thesis must be easily readable and of the same print quality as the text; that is, generally produced by acceptable permanent methods (laser printer). Pages should not vary from the standard A4 (210 x 297mm) size paper. Plan your illustrative materials so that they can be reduced to meet this specification.
Figure caption must be single-spaced; the body of the table may be single- or double-spaced for clarity and appearance. All lettering, including subscripts, must be clear, readable, and large enough to be legible for archival purposes. White space around the figures or accompanying text must meet all margin requirements.
Figure footnotes are to be identified by superscript numbers. Each figure footnote should be single-spaced; however, a double space must be used between each table footnote to improve appearance. Each figure footnote must be on a separate line ending with a period. Again, always be consistent.
Reduction (see landscape)
For reduction of material, always use machines that can reduce one percent at a time. Page numbers and headings must not be reduced.
Use high-contrast laser printed text.
Use New Times Roman or Century 12pt. on all pages of the thesis. Colored print worsen readability, so ensure that all pages are clear, crisp black.
Footnotes should be New Times Roman or Century 9pt. The same font as your thesis text should be used.
Endnotes should be New Times Roman or Century 12pt., the same as the body of your thesis text since endnotes is treated entirely as a separate page.
Captions to visual material should be New Times Roman or Century 12 pt. as in the body of text.
In your thesis defense and preceding periodic presentations, use Arial 36pt. for slide titles, and 28pt Arial for slide text.
Textual notes that provide bibliographic reference, supplementary information, opinions, explanations, or suggestions that are not part of the text may be handled in one of two ways:
Such notes, though, should supplement, complement, or amplify important information (concepts, ideas, …) in your thesis text. Anything complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential should be avoided. Make sure that any notes you use strengthen your thesis and the argument in question. Consider incorporating lengthy footnotes/endnotes into the body of your thesis text.
Footnotes should appear at the bottom of each affected page; endnotes should appear on a separate page at the end of the major section to which they pertain.
Individual entries are single-spaced. DoubleSpace is used to separate individual entries consistent with the spacing of Cited references, List of Tables, or List of Figures.
In the text, a Footnote/Endnote number is Arabic if style, generally placed at the end of the sentence to which it refers, and follows the sentence period. Use the superscript function to indicate the number. Use paragraph indenting. (see 6.17.1)
According to Buckley (2003), the main defining characteristics of ecotourism fall into two categories, namely environmental inputs and environmental outputs. The inputs are the natural and associated cultural features in a particular geographic place which serve as attractions for tourists. The outputs are the net costs or benefits for the natural and social environment. Ecotourism can hence be viewed as geotourism with a positive triple bottom line.1
Footnote/Endnote numbering must be continuous throughout the thesis and the method must be consistent.
Put a short rule line between the last line of the page text and the first footnote on the page. If you have two or more footnotes at the bottom of one page, begin each entry on a separate line.
Endnotes should be on a separate page at the end of a major section. The title of the page should include the major section title and the word “NOTES” in capital case.
Footnote/endnote information is often similar to Cited Reference entry information with the addition of a specific page number(s) for faster reference. However, the order (formatting) of the information differs. What should you do? Check a style manual (see 6.32) for the proper way!
Mathematical and chemical formulas may be typed or hand-lettered, but must be consistent in style and placement throughout the text. Long, complex mathematical and chemical equations should not be included in text lines, but should be placed in proper position in the center of the page between lines of the text. The lines in structural chemical formulas and hand-lettered mathematical formulas must be drawn with black, permanent (non-water soluble) ink in a neat, professional manner.
All formulas and equations (like all tables and figures) must be given an Arabic number and a caption, placed within the margins. Also, a LIST OF FORMULAS AN EQUATIONS should be added to your front matter and to your table of contents immediately following the LIST OF FIGURES or LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS whichever is last, and preceding any list of abbreviations or terminology.
Major Headings 1, 2, …
Use ALL CAPITAL LETTERS, 12 pt.
Heading number should be aligned flush left. Do not use a period [ . ] after the final number.
A-level subhead 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, …
Use title case, 12 pt.
Leftmost number should be aligned flush left directly under the 1st letter of the text in the immediately preceding line (major heading). Do not use a period [ . ] after the final number.
B-level subhead 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3, …
Use sentence case, 12 pt.
Leftmost number should be aligned flush left directly under the 1st letter of the text in the immediately preceding line (A-level subhead). Do not use a period [ . ] after the final number.
C-level subhead 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, …
Use lowercase, 12 pt.
Leftmost number should be aligned flush left directly under the 1st letter of the text in the immediately preceding line (B-level subhead). Do not use a period [ . ] after the final number.
Do not hyphenate words at the end of a line, so be sure to turn off any hyphenating function in your software. If for some reason you feel that you have to hyphenate a word, be sure to insert the hyphen between syllables, and be sure to check a dictionary to ensure accuracy.
All illustrations must be readable and labeled, and copied items must be properly cited.
Illustrations in a thesis, including original drawings, graphs, maps, photographs, facsimiles of documents and musical scores, are acceptable as long as the media used to produce them (paper, inks, digital printing processes, traditional photographic processes, and adhesives) are permanent.
Original drawings including mathematical or scientific formulas or other hand-lettered materials, that are to be bound directly in the archived bound copy of the thesis without photographic or offset reproduction must be prepared directly on paper that meets the same standard required for the text of the advisor, and drafted and lettered in black, permanent (non-water soluble) ink.
All illustrations (like all tables and figures) must be given an Arabic number and a caption, placed within the margins. Also, a LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS should be added to your front matter and to your table of contents immediately following the LIST OF FIGURES, and preceding any list of abbreviations or terminology.
Indent the first line of every paragraph. Use a tab for indenting, and do not use the space bar. This will aid greatly in maintaining consistency. Set the first line indentation tab in your ruler bar to about 5 spaces. Remaining lines should be flush with the left margin. The style is also used with Footnotes/Endnotes. see 6.12
Indent every line beginning with the second line of text. Use a hanging indent tab, and do not use the space bar. This will aid greatly in maintaining consistency. Set the lower hanging indent tab in your ruler bar to about 5 spaces. Remaining lines should be flush with the second line. The type of indent is used mostly in the Cited References section. see 5.2
Block quotations have no indenting. Avoid quoting text that is longer than one paragraph.Such long quotations are generally formatted into what looks like a “block” about the same amount of space from the left margin as a paragraph indent (6 mm) with extra spacebefore and after:
Be sure to identify all business models, concepts, ideas, quotations-whether it is a direct quotation or paraphrased text-in your thesis or dissertation
see 5.2.3 for citing sources in languages other than English
All GPSS theses and dissertations must be written in English. Use of any other language requires your advisor’s approval.
When a thesis is written in English, terms or phrases in Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Thai, Latin, Greek, or other foreign languages must be italicized or underlined. Whichever style you use, be consistent.
Foreign words and phrases that have, however, been assimilated into the English language need not be italicized. The word “tsunami”, for example, need not be italicized because it is now part of the English language.
Guideline: if the foreign word is in a collegiate or unabridged English dictionary, then neither italics nor underlining are used.
For terms in a non-Roman alphabet, romanize the term or phrase. All such terms or phrases must be followed by an English translation inserted in brackets [ ].
thesis usage italicized pattern
Seibutsu hozen no seitaigaku [Ecology for bio-conservation]
thesis usage underlined pattern
|Japanese 生物保全の生体学||Seibutsu hozen no seitaigaku [Ecology for bio-conservation]|
Foreign terms in common use in English-and can be found in an unabridged dictionary-are treated as all other English words; that is, italicizing conventions are not used. Here is a short list:
|to infinity, without end
from cause to effect
in fact, actual, realistically
a false step, error
in full, wholly
does not follow logically, illogical
reason for being
Use 25-27 mm margins on all sides of the text.
All single-digit numbers (1, 2, …, 9) should be written as words when used in a sentence.
Creating a sustainable community/society is a highly complex process of evolution. The evolutional process involves mutual interaction of 3 systems; namely, 1) human and social system, 2) economic system, and 3) ecological system as shown in Figure 3.
Creating a sustainable community/society is a highly complex process of evolution. The evolutional process involves mutual interaction of three systems; namely, 1) human and social system, 2) economic system, and 3) ecological system as shown in Figure 3.
However, single-digit numbers may be used when they are part of a word and immediately followed by a hyphen [ - ]:
A 7-point scale was used (with endpoints labeled “strongly agree” and “strongly disagree” in soliciting participant responses for each item.
Use numbers with units of measurement (5 mg, 17 cm), time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale, data in tables and figures … and include one space between the numeral and the unit.
Never begin a sentence with a number in any case. Either 1) write the number as a word, or 2) restructure the sentence to enable use of the number.
3 out of every 4 citizens responded that they were employing recycling measures at home on a daily basis.
Three out of every 4 citizens responded that they were employing recycling measures at home on a daily basis.
Out of every 4 citizens 3 responded that they were employing recycling measures at home on a daily basis.
When using a decimal value of less than one (1), always precede the decimal point with a zero. If some of your data in tables has 2 digits to the right of the decimal point, then all numbers in the column should also have 2 digits to the right of the decimal point. Sometimes software functions cause an irregularity. Be consistent!
Foldouts are generally discouraged. However, if reduction would make a figure too small to be easily understood, it can be duplicated by photography, photo offset, or photocopied on A3 (297 x 420 mm) paper and then folded so that it fits inside the edges of the thesis and can be unfolded flat for perusal. The oversized sheet should be folded to allow 40 mm on the binding edge and a smaller page overall-about 280 x 400 mm-for possible trimming in the archival process.
Every page in a thesis must have a number, though some of the front matter pages are not printed. Count the title page as page i, the copyright page as page ii, and the abstract as page iii but do not print the page numbers on any of these pages
Every page must be consecutively numbered including tables, figures, graphs, illustrations, diagrams, cited references; avoid 8a, 8b, or other letter suffixes.
For Front Matter, use small Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, v, …) centered at the bottom of the page within the typing area of the page. The numbers are not followed by a period or enclosed in hyphens or parentheses:
- ii -
( ii )
All pages must contain text or images. If you wish to include a blank page for some reason, please print “Page intentionally left blank” centered in the middle of the page to clearly indicate your intent.
For the Body of Text and Back Matter, use Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …) starting with page one (the first page of the text itself). Center page numbers at the bottom of the page. Continue numbering consecutively until the end of your thesis or dissertation; that is, until the very last appendix … or your biographical sketch in the case of dissertations.
Page numbers should be about 15mm from the edge of the paper inside the bottom margin (2.54 cm) space. Page numbers must be the same font and size that you use in the main body text. Be sure to check pagination carefully. Account for all pages.
Do not use a period after the page number.
Use only standard A4 (210 x 297 mm) paper.
General text pages are set in “portrait” vertical position.
Pages may be set in “landscape” horizontal position (297 x 210 mm) for figures, tables, or other visual materials that do not fit optimally in “portrait” position.
All photographs must be readable and labeled, and copied items must be properly cited.
All photographs included in the thesis should undergo “archival” or “optimum” processing to ensure reasonable permanency. Also, color photographs are not recommended unless absolutely necessary. Consult your advisor if you have any questions.
All photographs (like all tables and figures) must be given an Arabic number and a caption, placed within the margins. Also, a LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS should be added to your front matter and to your table of contents immediately following the LIST OF FIGURES or LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS whichever is last, and preceding any list of abbreviations or terminology.
Print must be clear and distinct with clean, sharp letters, and even blackness throughout. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable. The same size and style of print must be used throughout the thesis or dissertation unless otherwise noted. Dot matrix type that is not “letter quality” is not acceptable.
All lettering must be of publishable quality including tables, figures, illustrations, scanned images, and all other visual material. Images must be clear with no blurred or dark areas.
Use standard punctuation for formal writing, yet opt for a simple style. Your style manual will most likely provide the basic guidelines. The comma [ , ] generally gives writers the most problems, and there are a number of rules on its use. The best rule of thumb is to use the comma when it helps the reader understand better, and avoid using a comma when it does not help the reader understand better … and especially avoid the comma whenever it confuses the issue. Here are a few important points:
Moreover, it has the capability of integrating alternative resources of electricity, such as solar energy, bio-fuels, wind and mini-hydropower.
…, such as solar, hydroelectric, nuclear and bio-mass.
Moreover, it has the capability of integrating alternative resources of electricity such as solar energy, bio-fuels, wind, and mini-hydropower.
… such as solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, and bio-mass.
Always use a comma [ , ] before the conjunctions “and” or “or” in a series, and avoid using a comma before “such as”.
more complex style
|Past studies suggest that the knowledge on the effects of vegetation management aids in conservation of rare plant habitats; however, it must come together with a historical understanding of the habitats.||Past studies suggest that the knowledge on the effects of vegetation management aids in conservation of rare plant habitats. It must come together, however, with a historical understanding of the habitats.|
Commas & periods in quotations
|According to Day and Gastel (2006), “Good scientific writing is not a matter of life and death; it is much more important than that”.||According to Day and Gastel (2006), “Good scientific writing is not a matter of life and death; it is much more important than that.”|
|“Good scientific writing”, according to Day and Gastel (2006), “is not a matter of life and death; it is much more important than that”.||“Good scientific writing,” according to Day and Gastel (2006), “is not a matter of life and death; it is much more important than that.”|
Whenever you use business models, concepts, ideas, quotations—whether it is a direct quotation or paraphrased text—you must cite your source properly. Failure to do so is unethical and will likely be considered as plagiarism. See your style manual for the various ways to quote others and to properly cite sources. See 6.27 for quotation punctuation guidelines.
As stated in the recommendations of the Thirtieth World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO), the WHO “…recommends the adoption to the use of SI units by the entire scientific community, and particularly the medical community throughout the world.”
In some cases for the sake of improving readability, it may be appropriate to express the units in both Systeme International (SI) and, the less-scientific form in parentheses. For example, most people still think in terms of calories (more appropriately kilocalories or kcal) than in Joules (the SI unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy). More careful word usage would be “…contained 2510 J (600 kcal)…”.
When giving a decimal value of less than one (1.0), always precede the decimal point with a zero.
|.75 μmol/L||0.75 μmol/L|
This style of notation avoids confusion as to whether or not the spot on the paper is a decimal point. Note that the symbol for liter is always a capital L rather than lower case to avoid confusion with the numeral “1″.
use 1 space after all punctuation. Do not use 2 spaces after a colon [ : ] with present-day word processing software.
Excellent academic and professional writing includs no spelling errors. Any careless spelling errors will communicate a negative image to readers: if the writer is careless with such little things as spelling, then it is quite likely that the writer is careless with “other little things” such as found in your Methods section. Perhaps readers will doubt the accuracy or precise with “big things” too.
Using a spellcheck is always helpful, so set your software for the US dictionary function. Software dictionaries may or may not include all the variations of spelling. To wit:
North American English spelling is more common nowadays in scientific and technical writing than British English spelling. The University of Tokyo generally uses North American English spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and other similar conventions. see 6.5
Here is a list of some of the important differences in science:
|British system||(North) American System|
The GPSS Thesis Manual does not address every question related to style and format for the preparation of a thesis or dissertation. Many manuals and handbooks are available for this purpose. For specific questions not answered in this Thesis Manual, the current editions of standard style manuals may be helpful:
American Psychological Association. (2011). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: APA.
Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. (2006). Scientific Style and Format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers (7th ed.). Reston, VA: The Council.
Turabian, K.L. (2007). A Manual for Writers of Research Papers. Theses, and Dissertations (7th ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
All tables must be readable and labeled, and copied items must be properly cited. Color is not recommended for distinguishing features unless your advisor approves the use of color.
Tables should be inserted into the text as soon as possible after they are first mentioned. They may be placed directly into the text, or they may be placed on a page with no text above or below. If a table is alone on one page (with no narrative text), it should be centered within the horizontal and vertical page margins.
If the table is too large to follow immediately the part of the text relating to it, the text should be continued and the table placed on the page that follows. A table should be separated from the text both above and below it by approximately three single spaces, or placed on a separate page, depending on the size of the table.
Tables larger than one-half page should be placed on a separate sheet. A table of one page or less in length should not be divided and typed on two pages. Tables running longer than one page should be started on a new page and may be continued on one or more pages, as needed. The continuing page(s) for the table must include the title and column headings.
All tables should be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis using Arabic numbers, i.e., Table 1, Table 2, etc. Tables should be identified by number only. Do not use designations such as Table 1A, Table 1B. Tables may be set up with A and B parts. Table numbering must be continuous throughout the thesis. For example, there may not be two figures designated in a thesis as “Table 3″.
The title of a table should consist of a single phrase (not a sentence) with sentence capitalization (see 6.6) and no closing period at the end placed above the table (see style manuals recommended by your advisor or ones appropriate to your field; see 6.32). Tables and their titles need not be bold typeface. Be sure to use a consistent format throughout your thesis.
A horizontal table that is too wide for the page may be placed lengthwise (landscape) on the page. Tables that can fit either vertically or horizontally on a page must not be reduced. Only those tables that are too large to be placed horizontally may be reduced and continued on two or more pages, if necessary. Oversized tables should be reduced through photocopying, but be sure the copy is on the same paper as the rest of the thesis. Page numbers must be in original type and the original size: do not reduce.
All tables included in the body of the thesis must be easily readable and of the same print quality as the text; that is, generally produced by acceptable permanent methods (laser printer). Pages should not vary from the standard A4 (210 x 297 mm) size paper. Plan your table materials so that they meet this specification.
Table titles must be single-spaced; the body of the table may be single- or double-spaced for clarity and appearance. Headings and column and row entries should be clearly related. Ordinarily, vertical rules are not necessary, but use if they improve readability and understanding. Rule lines should be computer-generated or drawn in black, permanent (non-water soluble) ink. All lettering, including subscripts, must be clear, readable, and large enough to be legible for archival purposes. White space around the text or figures must meet all margin requirements.
Table footnotes are to be identified by superscript numbers; table footnotes showing significance, such as p-values, may be indicated by asterisks. Each table footnote should be single-spaced; however, a double space must be used between each table footnote to improve appearance. Each table footnote must be on a separate line ending with a period. Again, always be consistent.
Reduction (see landscape)
For reduction of material, always use machines that can reduce one percent at a time. If tables are too large to be reduced satisfactorily, they should either be split into several pages or be redone. Long tables may be single-spaced, and text may be slightly reduced. Page numbers and headings must not be reduced.
A “widow” line occurs when the last line of a paragraph appears alone at the top of a page.
An “orphan” line occurs when the first line of a paragraph, a major heading, or a subhead appears alone at the bottom of a page.
Avoid both widow and orphan formatting problems
Whenever you have a question or a problem, seek help. Don’t wait’