2.4  Back Matter

This part of your thesis generally contains required factual information.

2.4.1 Cited References/Bibliography

give credit where credit is due
avoid plagiarism at all costs!

A thesis must include a list of cited literature or bibliography listing all works that are referred to in the text. This section follows the last page of the body of text and precedes the appendices (if any).The styles used for listing sources in the list of cited literature or bibliography are detailed and complicated, and they can vary considerably among academic disciplines. For this reason, follow the most-widely accepted scholarly style manual in your field.

Even though there are many styles on how to cite references, virtually every style includes the minimum following parts:


author’s name(s)
title of article
publication information

  • title of publication (article)s
  • volume number
  • issue number
  • page numbers

author’s name(s)
title of book
publication information

  • city of publication
  • publisher name
  • date of publication

These represent the basic guidelines, yet there are numerous anomalies:

Author variations

  1. author, only one
  2. author, two
  3. author, more than two
  4. editor(s)
  5. group authors
  6. others

Title variations

  1. manuscript in preparation
  2. proper noun use
  3. revisions
  4. subtitles
  5. translations
  6. untitled work
  7. others

Source variations

  1. acts
  2. archival documents
  3. audio
  4. books
  5. doctoral dissertations and master theses
  6. foreign language sources
  7. government
  8. journals
  9. magazines
  10. newspapers
  11. online
  12. organizations
  13. symposiums
  14. technical reports
  15. translations
  16. unpublished work
  17. visual
  18. others

Punctuation styles

  1. hyphenating names
  2. italicizing
  3. quotation marks, double
  4. quotation marks, single
  5. others

Capitalization styles

  1. contemporary
  2. natural science
  3. social science
  4. traditional
  5. others

2.4.2 Appendixes

information that supplements or clarifies information in the body of text, yet is too long

Appendixes (also appendices) should be limited to supporting material genuinely secondary to the main argument of the thesis. They must include only material that supplements or clarifies material referred to in the thesis. This material is put into an appendix because its usually long and complex nature would be distracting in the body of text.

In scientific writing, the appendix usually represents a detailed explanation that is too long for the Methods section of your thesis which would be disturbing to the reader because the excessive detail distracts the reader from the inherent train of thought.

Appendixes typically include:

  1. actual surveys used for data collection (original language and English)
  2. computer programs
  3. instrument diagrams
  4. long calculations
  5. maps
  6. statistical analysis
  7. written comments from surveys
  8. others

REMEMBER: Whenever you have a question or a problem, seek help. Don’t wait!

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