3.4  Abstract

(1 or more pages)  required

An abstract is required and should not exceed 1,000 words. It should immediately follow the copyright page, and should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures of investigation, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. More simply speaking, the abstract should answer five questions:

Q1: What did you do?
Q2: Why did you do it? What question(s) were you trying to answer?
What problem(s) were you trying to solve?
Q3: How did you do it? State methods
Q4: What did you learn? State major results
Q5: Why does it matter? Point out at least one significant implication

Emphasize original contributions. The word ABSTRACT should be centered at the top of the page text area followed by two lines of space. Citations are generally unnecessary unless required by your advisor.

Page Numbering: Do not print a page number on the abstract page(s). This page is counted as page iii (iv, v, …) for pagination purposes only.

  • Tables, graphs, or illustrations should not be included in the abstract.
  • Abstract is not included in the Table of Contents.

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