FORMAT AND ARRANGEMENT

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4.2  Introduction

A good introduction generally includes an overview of the problem, a statement of why the problem is important, a summary of relevant literature, and a clear statement of the research question; that is, the hypotheses and/or goals of the research. The introduction should be written in such a way as to enable even a non-specialist researcher to understand it.

Writing a good introduction is challenging until you know what the body of the thesis says. Consider writing (or re-writing) the Introduction after you have completed the rest of the paper, rather than before.

4.2.1 Content

4.2.1.1

be sure to include a sufficiently interesting statement at the beginning of the introduction to motivate your reader to read the rest of the thesis … it is generally an important/interesting scientific problem that your thesis either solves or addresses. Draw the reader in and make the reader eager to read on.

NOTE: your professors and fellow students will read what you write because that is what professors and fellow students do … they are part of your “university family”. However, the real world off campus is often different; that is, submitting research to journals for publication, preparing research presentations for symposia, and other similar scenarios. The real world reads what you write because the content seems of interest and potential value, and is written in a professional fashion.

4.2.1.2

provide a thorough review of relevant literature to enable even a non-specialist researcher to understand the problem. Cite previous research in the field chronologically; that is, cite those who had ideas first, and then cite those who have done the most recent and relevant work. You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary (your work, of course).

4.2.1.3

provide a thorough review of relevant literature to enable even a non-specialist researcher to understand the problem. Cite previous research in the field chronologically; that is, cite those who had ideas first, and then cite those who have done the most recent and relevant work. You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary (your work, of course).

4.2.1.4

explain the scope of your work: what your research includes and what your research excludes. Briefly explain the rationale for excluding any seemingly pertinent areas.

4.2.2 In-Text Citations (Cited Reference form provided for easy comparison)

When discussing extant work, the source of such information must be cited to give credit to the original source. The in-text reference should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which it directly relates.

Basically, two options exist:

Option 1 uses a citation in parentheses [ ( ) ] in the sentence

Option 2 uses author as part of a sentence, and put the year reference in parentheses

4.2.2.1 Single Author

in-text reference: 1 author (Option 1)

The main defining characteristics of ecotourism fall into two categories, namely environmental inputs and environmental outputs. The inputs are the natural and associated cultural features in a particular geographic place which serve as attractions for tourists. The outputs are the net costs or benefits for the natural and social environment. Ecotourism can hence be viewed as geotourism with a positive triple bottom line (Buckley, 2003).

in-text reference: 1 author (Option 2)

According to Buckley (2003), the main defining characteristics of ecotourism fall into two categories, namely environmental inputs and environmental outputs. The inputs are the natural and associated cultural features in a particular geographic place which serve as attractions for tourists. The outputs are the net costs or benefits for the natural and social environment. Ecotourism can hence be viewed as geotourism with a positive triple bottom line.

Cited Reference entry: 1 author

Buckley, R. 2003. Environmental Inputs and Outputs in Ecotourism: Geotourism with a Positive Triple Bottom Line? Journal of Ecotourism, 2 (1): 76-82.

4.2.2.2 Two Authors

Cite double-author references by the surnames of both authors (followed by date of the publication in parenthesis)

in-text reference: 2 authors (Option1)

Although ecotourism is often theorised as a hard path and ecocentric, in the last decade such travel has softened to accommodate heightened demand in a growing number of regions, and the inclusion of other more consumptive types of activities (Fennell and Nowaczek, 2010).

in-text reference: 2 authors (Option2)

According to Fennell and Nowaczek,(2010), although
ecotourism is often theorised as a hard path and ecocentric, in the last decade such travel has softened to accommodate heightened demand in a growing number of regions, and the inclusion of other more consumptive types of activities.

Cited Reference entry: 2 authors

Fennell, D., and Nowaczek, A. 2010. Moral and empirical dimensions of human-animal interactions in eco-tourism: Deepening an otherwise shallow pool of debate. Journal of Ecotourism, 9 (3): 239-255.

4.2.2.3 Three or more Authors

If three or more authors are involved, use only the first (or lead) author’s name followed by et al. Notice that there is no comma after the author’s name, no comma after “et” a period [ . ] after “al.”, and a comma [ , ] or parentheses [ ( ) ] depending on the type of reference to separate the author information from the data of publication.

in-text reference: 3 or more authors (Option 1)

Growth in the marine wildlife tourism industry has been accompanied by concerns regarding its sustainability. A new generic framework for assessing the sustainability of such ventures has proven to have at least three applications: improving existing marine wildlife tourism operations through reviewing their sustainability; developing an auditing mechanism as part of the licensing provisions for such tourism; and helping to determine the likely sustainability of proposed ventures. (Rodger et al., 2010).

in-text reference: 3 or more authors (Option 2)

According to Rodger et al. (2010), growth in the marine wildlife tourism industry has been accompanied by concerns regarding its sustainability. A new generic framework for assessing the sustainability of such ventures has proven to have at least three applications: improving existing marine wildlife tourism operations through reviewing their sustainability; developing an auditing mechanism as part of the licensing provisions for such tourism; and helping to determine the likely sustainability of proposed ventures.

Cited Reference entry: 3 or more authors

Rodger, K., Smith, A., Newsome, D., and Moore, S.A. 2011. Developing and testing an assessment framework to guide the sustainability of the marine wildlife tourism industry. Journal of Ecotourism, 10 (2): 149-164.

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