FORMAT AND ARRANGEMENT

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6.9  FIGURES

All figures must be readable and labeled, and copied items must be properly cited. Color is not recommended for distinguishing features; cross-hatching is preferred unless your advisor approves the use of color.

Location
Figures may be placed on a page alone by themselves, or they may be placed directly into the text. If a figure is alone on a page (with no narrative text), it must be centered within the horizontal and vertical margins. Figures located in text may not be placed at the end of the chapter or at the end of the thesis.

When inserting figures into the text, they must be inserted as soon as possible after they are first mentioned. If the figure is too large to follow immediately the part of the text to which it relates, the figure should be placed at the beginning of the following page. A figure should be separated from the text both above and below it by approximately three single spaces, or placed on a separate page, depending on the size of the figure.

Figures larger than one-half page should be placed on a separate sheet. A figure that is too wide for the page may be placed lengthwise on the page (landscape layout). Figures that can fit either vertically or horizontally on a page must not be reduced. Oversized figures should be reduced through photocopying but be sure the copy is on the same paper as the rest of the thesis. Page numbers are not to be reduced in size: they must be in original font and size.

Numbering
All figures must be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis using Arabic numbers, i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Figures should be identified by number only. Do not use designations such as Figure 1A, Figure 1B. Figures may be set up with A and B parts. Figure numbering must be continuous throughout the thesis. For example, there may not be two figures designated in a thesis as “Figure 3″.

Captions
The title of a figure should consist of a single phrase (not a sentence) with sentence capitalization (see 6.6) and no closing period at the end placed below the figure (see style manuals recommended by your advisor or ones appropriate to your field; see 6.32). The word “figure” should be written in full (not abbreviated), and the “F” should be capitalized (e.g., Figure 5). Avoid numbering such as Figure 5a, Figure 5b, and Figure 5c whenever possible. Figures and their titles need not be bold typeface. Be sure to use a consistent format throughout your thesis. 

Horizontal (landscape)
Horizontal figures (i.e., those landscaped on the page) must be centered on the page. Figure captions should be placed below the figure inside the page margins. Page numbers are always placed as if the figure were vertical on the page. Figures that can fit either vertically or horizontally on a page must not be reduced. Only those figures that are too large to be placed horizontally may be reduced and continued on two or more pages, if necessary. Oversized figures should be reduced through photocopying, but be sure the copy is on the same paper as the rest of the thesis. Page numbers must be in original type and the original size: do not reduce.

Readability
All graphs, diagrams, line drawings, manuscript facsimiles, maps, chemical formulas, computer printouts, and so on included in the body of the thesis must be easily readable and of the same print quality as the text; that is, generally produced by acceptable permanent methods (laser printer). Pages should not vary from the standard A4 (210 x 297mm) size paper. Plan your illustrative materials so that they can be reduced to meet this specification.

Spacing
Figure caption must be single-spaced; the body of the table may be single- or double-spaced for clarity and appearance. All lettering, including subscripts, must be clear, readable, and large enough to be legible for archival purposes. White space around the figures or accompanying text must meet all margin requirements.

Figure footnotes
Figure footnotes are to be identified by superscript numbers. Each figure footnote should be single-spaced; however, a double space must be used between each table footnote to improve appearance. Each figure footnote must be on a separate line ending with a period. Again, always be consistent.

Reduction (see landscape)
For reduction of material, always use machines that can reduce one percent at a time. Page numbers and headings must not be reduced.

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