Textual notes that provide bibliographic reference, supplementary information, opinions, explanations, or suggestions that are not part of the text may be handled in one of two ways:

  • 1)  place them at the bottom of the same page in which the footnote number is found in the text (footnotes), or
  • 2)  group all your notes for any one section of your thesis at the end of that section in a list (endnotes). Whichever pattern you choose, be consistent throughout your thesis.

Such notes, though, should supplement, complement, or amplify important information (concepts, ideas, …) in your thesis text. Anything complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential should be avoided. Make sure that any notes you use strengthen your thesis and the argument in question. Consider incorporating lengthy footnotes/endnotes into the body of your thesis text.

Footnotes should appear at the bottom of each affected page; endnotes should appear on a separate page at the end of the major section to which they pertain.

Individual entries are single-spaced. DoubleSpace is used to separate individual entries consistent with the spacing of Cited references, List of Tables, or List of Figures.

In the text, a Footnote/Endnote number is Arabic if style, generally placed at the end of the sentence to which it refers, and follows the sentence period. Use the superscript function to indicate the number. Use paragraph indenting. (see 6.17.1)

According to Buckley (2003), the main defining characteristics of ecotourism fall into two categories, namely environmental inputs and environmental outputs. The inputs are the natural and associated cultural features in a particular geographic place which serve as attractions for tourists. The outputs are the net costs or benefits for the natural and social environment. Ecotourism can hence be viewed as geotourism with a positive triple bottom line.1

Footnote/Endnote numbering must be continuous throughout the thesis and the method must be consistent.

Put a short rule line between the last line of the page text and the first footnote on the page. If you have two or more footnotes at the bottom of one page, begin each entry on a separate line.

Endnotes should be on a separate page at the end of a major section. The title of the page should include the major section title and the word “NOTES” in capital case.

Footnote/endnote information is often similar to Cited Reference entry information with the addition of a specific page number(s) for faster reference. However, the order (formatting) of the information differs. What should you do? Check a style manual (see 6.32) for the proper way!

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